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Provider Resources


Screening and Monitoring Tools

Information to Aid in Selecting Tools
The Screening and Monitoring Tools Spreadsheet provides information to help healthcare providers select brief screening and monitoring tools related to pain, substance use, opioid risk, mental health, trauma, and intimate partner violence. The spreadsheet states the purpose of each tool, the administration time, scoring information, and other pertinent information.

Screening and Monitoring Tools Spreadsheet

Downloads for a Subset of Tools



Pain, Enjoyment of Life, General Activity. 3-item measure. Assesses pain intensity and interference.


4 P’s Plus

Parents, Partner, Past, Pregnancy. Identifies obstetrical patients in need of in-depth assessment for substance use.

DAST 10-Item

Drug Abuse Screening Test. Assesses problems and consequences related to drug use in the past 12 months.

NIDA Quick Screen/
Modified Assist

Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. 4-item quick screener followed by 15-minute tool for patients identified by quick screener.



Opioid Risk Tool. 5 items. Administered prior to prescribing to assess risk of non-medical opioid use.


Current Opioid Misuse Measure. Assesses opioid therapy adherence or non-medical use.


Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain—Short Form. 5 items. Administered prior to prescribing to assess risk of non-medical opioid use.


Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale. 11 items. Identifies signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal.



Patient Health Questionnaire. 2-item depression screener to identify patients with whom to administer the PHQ-9.


Patient Health Questionnaire. 9-item depression screener.


Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale. 7-item anxiety screener. The first 2 items can be used to identify patients in need of the full screener.

Abbreviated PCLC

PTSD Checklist—Civilian Version. 7-item screener for posttraumatic stress disorder due to stressful life experiences.

Web Resources

Information on State-Specific Laws Addressing Substance Use by Parents Within Child Protection Statutes

Child Information Gateway

Guttmacher Institute

Substance Use Disorder Treatment Locators

SAMHSA locator for methadone treatment programs

SAMHSA locator for physicians waivered to prescribe buprenorphine (voluntary)

Clinician Trainings and Tools: Opioid Prescribing

SCOPE of Pain, Safe and Competent Opioid Prescribing Education CME/CNE

CDC Opioid Prescribing Guideline App

CDC Morphine Equivalent Conversion Factor Table

Online Opioid Dose Calculator (Washington)

Opioid Dose Calculator App (New York)

Taper Plan Flow Sheet (Oregon)

Taper Plan Spreadsheet (Washington)

Clinician Trainings and Tools: Substance Use Disorders and Treatment

Buprenorphine Waiver Training


ASAM National Practice Guideline

Information on Medications in Pregnancy and Lactation

National Library of Medicine


Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS)

Texas Tech University Medications in Lactation


ACOG Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women; American Society of Addiction Medicine. (2012). ACOG Committee Opinion No. 524: Opioid abuse, dependence, and addiction in pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 119(5), 1070–1076

Abdel-Latif, M. E., Pinner, J., Clews, S., Cooke, F., Lui, K., & Oei, J. (2006). Effects of breast milk on the severity and outcome of neonatal abstinence syndrome among infants of drug-dependent mothers. Pediatrics, 117(6), e1163–e1169.

Abrahams, R. R., Kelly, S. A., Payne, S., Thiessen, P. N., Mackintosh, J., & Janssen, P. A. (2007). Rooming-in compared with standard care for newborns of mothers using methadone or heroin. Canadian Family Physician, 53(10), 1722–1730.

Abrahams, R. R., MacKay-Dunn, M. H., Nevmerjitskaia, V., MacRae, G. S., Payne, S. P., & Hodgson, Z. G. (2010). An evaluation of rooming-in among substance-exposed newborns in British Columbia. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 32(9), 866–871.

Beakley B. D., Kaye A. M., & Kaye A. D. (2015). Tramadol, Pharmacology, Side Effects, and Serotonin Syndrome: A Review. Pain Physician, 18(4), 395–400.

Bell, J., Towers, C. V., Hennessy, M. D., Heitzman, C., Smith, B., & Chattin, K. (2016). Detoxification from opiate drugs during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 215(3), 374-e1.

Bogen, D. L., Perel, J. M., Helsel, J. C., Hanusa, B. H., Thompson, M., & Wisner, K. L. (2011). Estimated infant exposure to enantiomer-specific methadone levels in breastmilk. Breastfeeding Medicine, 6(6), 377-384.

Broussard, C. S., Rasmussen, S. A., Reefhuis, J., Friedman, J. M., Jann, M. W., Riehle-Colarusso, T., ... & Study, N. B. D. P. (2011). Maternal treatment with opioid analgesics and risk for birth defects. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 204(4), 314-e1.

Brown, M. S., Hayes, M. J., & Thornton, L. M. (2014). Methadone versus morphine for treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Journal of Perinatology, 35(4), 278.

Burns, L., Mattick, R. P., Lim, K., & Wallace, C. (2007). Methadone in pregnancy: Treatment retention and neonatal outcomes. Addiction, 102(2), 264–270.

Carrasco, M., Rao, S. C., Bearer, C. F., & Sundararajan, S. (2015). Neonatal gabapentin withdrawal syndrome. Pediatric Neurology, 53(5), 445–447.

Chou, R., & Huffman, L. H. (2007). Nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: A review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain. Annals of Internal Medicine, 147(7), 492–504.

Cicero, T. J., Lynskey, M., Todorov, A., Inciardi, J. A., & Surratt, H. L. (2008). Co-morbid pain and psychopathology in males and females admitted to treatment for opioid analgesic abuse. Pain, 139(1), 127–135.

Cleary, B. J., Donnelly, J., Strawbridge, J., Gallagher, P. J., Fahey, T., Clarke, M., & Murphy, D. J. (2010). Methadone dose and neonatal abstinence syndrome: Systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction, 105(12), 2071–2084.

Cleary, B. J., Eogan, M., O'connell, M. P., Fahey, T., Gallagher, P. J., Clarke, T., ... & Gleeson, J. (2012). Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study. Addiction, 107(8), 1482–1492.

Close, C., Sinclair, M., Liddle, S. D., Madden, E., McCullough, J. E., & Hughes, C. (2014). A systematic review investigating the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the management of low back and/or pelvic pain in pregnancy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(8), 1702–1716.

Conroy, E., Degenhardt, L., Mattick, R. P. & Nelson, E. C. (2009). Child maltreatment as a risk factor for opioid dependence: Comparison of family characteristics and type and severity of child maltreatment with a matched control group. Child Abuse and Neglect, 33(6), 343–352.

Crews, K. R., Gaedigk, A., Dunnenberger, H. M., Leeder, J. S., Klein, T. E., Caudle, K. E., ... & Prows, C. A. (2014). Clinical pharmacogenetics implementation consortium guidelines for cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype and codeine therapy: 2014 update. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 95(4), 376–382.

Daniell, H. W. (2008). Opioid endocrinopathy in women consuming prescribed sustained-action opioids for control of nonmalignant pain. Journal of Pain, 9(1), 28–36.

Desai, R. J., Huybrechts, K. F., Hernandez-Diaz, S., Mogun, H., Patorno, E., Kaltenbach, K., ... & Bateman, B. T. (2015). Exposure to prescription opioid analgesics in utero and risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome: population based cohort study. BMJ, 350, h2102.

Dowell, D., Haegerich, T. M., & Chou, R. (2016). CDC guideline for prescribing opioids for chronic pain—United States, 2016. JAMA, 315(15), 1624–1645.

Fajemirokun-Odudeyi, O., Sinha, C., Tutty, S., Pairaudeau, P., Armstrong, D., Phillips, T., & Lindow, S. W. (2006). Pregnancy outcome in women who use opiates. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 126(2), 170–175.

Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2010). The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders and sexual behavior: Implications for healthcare. In R. A. Lanius, E. Vermetten, & C. Pain (Eds.), The impact of early life trauma on health and disease: The hidden epidemic (pp. 77–87). Cambridge University Press.

Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., ... & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245–258.

Finnegan, L. P. & Kaltenbach, K. (1992). Neonatal abstinence syndrome. In R. A. Hoekelman, S. B. Friedman, N. Nelson, & H. M. Seidel (Eds.) Primary pediatric care (2nd ed.; pp. 1367–1378). St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.

Finnegan, L. P., Kron, R. E., Connaughton, J. F., & Emich, J. P. (1975). A scoring system for evaluation and treatment of the neonatal abstinence syndrome: a new clinical and research tool. In P. L. Morselli, S. Garattini, & F. Sereni (Eds.), Basic and therapeutic aspects of perinatal pharmacology (pp. 139–153). New York: Raven.

Gaalema, D. E., Scott, T. L., Heil, S. H., Coyle, M. G., Kaltenbach, K., Badger, G. J., ... & Jones, H. E. (2012). Differences in the profile of neonatal abstinence syndrome signs in methadone‐versus buprenorphine‐exposed neonates. Addiction, 107(S1), 53–62.

Gerstein, D. R. (1991). The effectiveness of drug treatment. Research Publications-Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, 70, 253–282.

Green, B. L., Saunders, P. A., Power, E., Dass-Brailsford, P., Schelbert, K. B., Giller, E., ... & Mete, M. (2015). Trauma-informed medical care: A CME communication training for primary care providers. Family medicine, 47(1), 7.

Hartenstein, S., Proquitte, H., Bauer, S., Bamberg, C., & Roehr, C. C. (2010). Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) after intrauterine exposure to tramadol. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 38(6), 695–696.

Hodgson, Z. G., & Abrahams, R. R. (2012). A rooming-in program to mitigate the need to treat for opiate withdrawal in the newborn. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 34(5), 475–481.

Hudak, M. L., & Tan, R. C. (2012). Neonatal drug withdrawal. Pediatrics, 129(2), e540–e560.

Jamison R. N., Butler S. F., Budman S. H., Edwards R. R., & Wasan A. D. (2010). Gender differences in risk factors for aberrant prescription opioid use. Journal of Pain, 11(4), 312–320.

Jansson, L. M. (2009). ABM Clinical Protocol #21: Guidelines for breastfeeding and the drug-dependent woman. Breastfeeding Medicine, 4(4), 225–228.

Jansson, L. M., & Velez, M. (2012). Neonatal abstinence syndrome. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 24(2), 252–258.

Jones, H. E., Deppen, K., Hudak, M. L., Leffert, L., McClelland, C., Sahin, L., ... & Creanga, A. A. (2014). Clinical care for opioid-using pregnant and postpartum women: the role of obstetric providers. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 210(4), 302–310.

Jones, H. E., & Fielder, A. (2015). Neonatal abstinence syndrome: Historical perspective, current focus, future directions. Preventive Medicine, 80, 12–17.

Jones, H. E., Jansson, L. M., O'Grady, K. E., & Kaltenbach, K. (2013). The relationship between maternal methadone dose at delivery and neonatal outcome: methodological and design considerations. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 39, 110–115.

Jones, H. E., Kaltenbach, K., Heil, S. H., Stine, S. M., Coyle, M. G., Arria, A. M., ... & Fischer, G. (2010). Neonatal abstinence syndrome after methadone or buprenorphine exposure. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(24), 2320–2331.

Jones, H. E., Martin, P. R., Heil, S. H., Kaltenbach, K., Selby, P., Coyle, M. G., ... & Fischer, G. (2008). Treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant women: clinical and research issues. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 35(3), 245–259.

Jones, H. E., O'Grady, K., Dahne, J., Johnson, R., Lemoine, L., Milio, L., ... & Selby, P. (2009). Management of acute postpartum pain in patients maintained on methadone or buprenorphine during pregnancy. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 35(3), 151–156.

Jones, H. E., O'Grady, K. E., Malfi, D., & Tuten, M. (2008). Methadone maintenance vs. methadone taper during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal outcomes. The American Journal on Addictions, 17(5), 372–386.

Kaltenbach, K., Berghella, V., & Finnegan, L. (1998). Opioid dependence during pregnancy: effects and management. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 25(1), 139–151.

Kaltenbach, K., Holbrook, A. M., Coyle, M. G., Heil, S. H., Salisbury, A. L., Stine, S. M., ... & Jones, H. E. (2012). Predicting treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome in infants born to women maintained on opioid agonist medication. Addiction, 107(S1), 45–52.

Kellogg, A., Rose, C. H., Harms, R. H., & Watson, W. J. (2011). Current trends in narcotic use in pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 204(3), 259–e1.

Kocherlakota, P. (2014). Neonatal abstinence syndrome. Pediatrics, 134(2), e547–e561.

Kraft, W. K., Adeniyi-Jones, S. C., Chervoneva, I., Greenspan, J. S., Abatemarco, D., Kaltenback, K., & Ehrlich, M. E. (2017). Buprenorphine for the treatment of the neonatal abstinence syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 376, 2341–2348.

Matthias, M. S., Johnson, N. L., Shields, C. G., Bair, M. J., MacKie, P., Huffman, M., & Alexander, S. C. (in press). “I'm not gonna pull the rug out from under you”: Patient-provider communication about opioid tapering. The Journal of Pain.

McCarthy, J. J., Leamon, M. H., Willits, N. H., & Salo, R. (2015). The effect of methadone dose regimen on neonatal abstinence syndrome. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 9(2), 105–110.

Meyer, M., Paranya, G., Norris, A. K., & Howard, D. (2010). Intrapartum and postpartum analgesia for women maintained on buprenorphine during pregnancy. European Journal of Pain, 14(9), 939–943.

Meyer, M., Wagner, K., Benvenuto, A., Plante, D., & Howard, D. (2007). Intrapartum and postpartum analgesia for women maintained on methadone during pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 110(2, Part 1), 261–266.

Mills, K. L., Lynskey, M., Teesson, M., Ross, J. & Darke, S. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder among people with heroin dependence in the Australian treatment study (ATOS): Prevalence and correlates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 77(3), 243–249.

Mills, K. L., Teesson, M., Ross, J., Darke, S., & Shanahan, M. (2006). The costs and outcomes of treatment for opioid dependence associated with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Services, 56(8), 940–945.

Minozzi, S., Amato, L., Bellisario, C., Ferri, M., & Davoli, M. (2013). Maintenance agonist treatments for opiate‐dependent pregnant women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,(12).

Newman, A., Davies, G. A., Dow, K., Holmes, B., Macdonald, J., McKnight, S., & Newton, L. (2015). Rooming-in care for infants of opioid-dependent mothers. Canadian Family Physician, 61(12), e555–e561.

Paltrow, L. M., & Flavin, J. (2013). Arrests of and forced interventions on pregnant women in the United States, 1973–2005: Implications for women’s legal status and public health. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 1966324.

Pani, P. P., Trogu, E., Maremmani, I., & Pacini, M. (2013). QTc interval screening for cardiac risk in methadone treatment of opioid dependence. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,(6).

Patrick, S. W., Schumacher, R. E., Horbar, J. D., Buus-Frank, M. E., Edwards, E. M., Morrow, K. A., ... & Soll, R. F. (2016). Improving care for neonatal abstinence syndrome. Pediatrics, e20153835.

Pritham, U. A., Paul, J. A., & Hayes, M. J. (2012). Opioid dependency in pregnancy and length of stay for neonatal abstinence syndrome. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 41(2), 180–190.

Pritham, U. A., & McKay, L. (2014). Safe management of chronic pain in pregnancy in an era of opioid misuse and abuse. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 43(5), 554–567.

Quinn, K., Boone, L., Scheidell, J. D., Mateau-Gelabert, P., Mcgorray, S. S., Beharie, N.,Cottler, L. B, and Kahn, M. R (2016). The relationship of childhood trauma and adult prescription pain reliever misuse and injection drug use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 169, 190–198.

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Sachs, H. C. (2013). The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: An update on selected topics. Pediatrics, 132(3), e796–e809.

Sansone, R. A., Whitecar, P., & Wiederman, M. W. (2009) The prevalence of childhood trauma among those seeking buprenorphine treatment. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 28(1), 64–67.

Sarkar, S., & Donn, S. M. (2006). Management of neonatal abstinence syndrome in neonatal intensive care units: a national survey. Journal of Perinatology, 26(1), 15.

Sarangarm, P., Young, B., Rayburn, W., Jaiswal, P., Dodd, M., Phelan, S., & Bakhireva, L. (2012). Agreement between self‐report and prescription data in medical records for pregnant women. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 94(3), 153–161.

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Stewart, R. D., Nelson, D. B., Adhikari, E. H., McIntire, D. D., Roberts, S. W., Dashe, J. S., & Sheffield, J. S. (2013). The obstetrical and neonatal impact of maternal opioid detoxification in pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 209(3), 267–e1.

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Volkow, N. D., Koob, G. F., & McLellan, A. T. (2016). Neurobiologic advances from the brain disease model of addiction. New England Journal of Medicine, 374(4), 363–371.

Vuong, C., Van Uum, S. H., O'dell, L. E., Lutfy, K., & Friedman, T. C. (2009). The effects of opioids and opioid analogs on animal and human endocrine systems. Endocrine Reviews, 31(1), 98–132.

Welle‐Strand, G. K., Skurtveit, S., Jansson, L. M., Bakstad, B., Bjarkø, L., & Ravndal, E. (2013). Breastfeeding reduces the need for withdrawal treatment in opioid‐exposed infants. Acta Paediatrica, 102(11), 1060–1066.

Weiss R. D., Potter, J. S., Fiellin, D. A., Byrne, M., Connery, H. S., Dickinson, W., Gardin, J., Griffin, M. L., Gourevitch, M. N., Haller, D. L., Hasson, A. L., Huang, Z., Jacobs, P., Kosinski, A. S., Lindblad, R., McCance-Katz, E. F., Provost, S. E., Selzer, J., Somoza, E. C., Sonne, S. C., & Ling, W. (2011). Adjunctive counseling during brief and extended buprenorphine-naloxone treatment for prescription opioid dependence: A 2-phase randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68 (12), 1238–1246.

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